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Why do you need tracheal intubation after surgery?

2018-5-28 2938
As we all know, surgery has the size of the points. Tracheal intubation is used to rescue patients from breathing difficulties. Why do you have to perform an operation and intubate it? This is because some surgery takes a long time to consider, trauma, bleeding, related to vital organs, will choose general anesthesia, and all general anesthetics (intravenous anesthetic and inhaled anesthetics) have different degrees of respiratory depression, after the application of the patient Decreased tidal volume and respiratory rate cause insufficient ventilation. To prevent the patient from lack of oxygen, breathing through the tracheal tube can be well controlled or assisted breathing.
Some operations such as abdominal surgery, if the patient's muscles do not relax the surgery can not be carried out, only the use of muscle relaxants during anesthesia to achieve surgical conditions, and once the muscle relaxant drug injection, the patient can not maintain breathing, then we must rely on ventilator support , and tracheal intubation is the premise. In addition, patients under general anesthesia, cough reflex, swallow reflex, sneezing reflex reflex inhibition, loss of self-protection ability, prone to reflux aspiration, once the contents of the stomach into the lungs, it will lead to serious complications and even death. Tracheal intubation isolates the respiratory tract from the digestive tract, prevents other foreign substances from entering the respiratory tract, reduces the risk of aspiration, and can aspirate endocrine secretions in time to maintain airway patency. Artificial or mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia prevents the patient from hypoxia and carbon dioxide retention. This type of endotracheal intubation can be performed only when the anesthetic reaches a certain depth, and the patient is in an unconscious condition, so the intubation operation does not cause pain to the patient.
Of course, with the advancement of ventilation and anesthesia techniques, a laryngeal mask has been invented. The mask is placed into the patient's throat and can also seal and wrap around the glottis, which can act as a barrier to the respiratory and digestive tracts. Because the laryngeal mask does not need to be inserted into the trachea, the damage to the patient is very small, and even the patient can tolerate it in awake conditions. Currently, the laryngeal mask has been widely used in general anesthesia patients, and there is a tendency to replace the tracheal intubation. In addition, there are some short surgeries that take into account the small effect on the patient's respiration, although general anesthesia may be selected without intubation.
Some operations are performed under local anesthesia, nerve block or intraspinal anesthesia. Patients remain awake and their protective reflexes are not affected, so tracheal intubation is not required. However, in the event of an accident during surgery, such as major bleeding, pulmonary embolism, local anesthetic poisoning, cardiac arrest, etc., it requires immediate tracheal intubation.